# Component Interaction

Traditional systems like APIs present simple scenarios, in which a centralized service define how data should be encoded. However, decentralized ecosystems like a distributed voting system need much stronger work on defining every interaction between any two peers on the network.

# Prior to voting

# Overview

Before a voting process can take place, the following four general steps must occur:

  1. Vocdoni deploys the smart contracts (opens new window) to Ethereum
  2. The organizer registers an Entity to the blockchain
    • The metadata of the entity is pinned on IPFS
    • The reference is declared on the ENS resolver of the entity
  3. A public key is registered for each user
    • Either:
      • The voter creates a self-sovereign identity and registers to an organization with their public key
      • The organizer keeps a list of registered public keys of eligible voters
    • Or:
      • The organizer creates a spreadsheet containing private information of each eligible voter. Each voter's public key for a specific voting process is derived from their private information.
  4. The organizer published a census Merkle Tree containing all voters' public keys

# Initial Gateway discovery

The client wants to get initial connectivity with the available gateways.

  1. Using a well-known Ethereum Gateway, we query for an initial boot node on the ENS Resolver. The following is defined:
    • Well-known Ethereum blockchain gateways
    • Entity Resolver contract address
    • Vocdoni's Entity ID
  2. From one of the boot nodes, we get a list of Gateways provided by Vocdoni


  • One of Vocdoni's Gateways is used to query the ENS resolver of a certain Entity

# Set Entity metadata

An Entity starts existing at the moment it has certain metadata stored on the Entity Resolver smart contract.

Used schemas:

# Voting

# Overview

The voting process as a whole is as follows:

  1. The organizer creates a voting process
    • Select the voter census or voter csv to use
    • Get the census Merkle Root
    • Pin the Merkle Tree on IPFS or similar
    • Pin the Process Metadata on IPFS
    • Send a transaction to the process smart contract, including Content URIs pointing to the Process Metadata and the Census Merkle Tree, along with the rest of parameters
    • Update the list of voting processes on the ENS Resolver contract for the entity
  2. The voter fetches the active processes for an Entity, or is sent a link directly to a process
    • Read the description and review the voting options
  3. The voter verifies that they belong in the census:
    • Either:
      • Decrypt their self-managed key and check its inclusion in the census
    • Or:
      • Enter their private information to the client, which generates their ephemeral key pair for this process, and check that key's inclusion in the census
  4. The voter casts a vote
    • The client generates a proof that the voter's key belongs in the census Merkle Tree
    • The client computes the user's nullifier for the vote
    • The client generates the Vote Package with the election choices
    • If the process is encrypted:
      • The client fetches the encryption public keys from the Gateway
      • The client encrypts the Vote Package with the public keys of the voting process
    • If the process is anonymous:
      • The client fetches the proving and verification keys and then generates the Zero-Knowledge Proof
      • The ZK Proof proves that:
        • The voter knows a private key, whose public key belongs to the census
        • The provided nullifier matches the current process ID and the user's private key
    • The client generates the Vote Envelope containing the Vote Package
    • The client selects a Gateway among the available ones and submits the Vote Envelope
    • The Gateway submits the Vote Envelope to the mempool of the Vochain
  5. A Vochain miner processes an incoming Vote Envelope
    • The Vochain miner checks that the current block is within the process start/end blocks
    • The Vochain miner checks that the given nullifier has not been used before
    • If the process is anonymous:
      • The Vochain miner checks that the ZK Proof of the Vote Envelope is valid
    • If the process is not anonymous:
      • The Vochain miner checks that the Merkle Proof of the Vote Envelope matches the vote signature and the Merkle root
    • The Vochain miner adds the Vote Envelope to the next block

# Voting process creation

Used schemas:

# Voting process retrieval

A user wants to retrieve the voting processes of a given Entity

Used schemas:

# Check census inclusion

A user wants to know whether he/she belongs in the census of a process or not.

Used schemas:


  • generateProof may be replaced with a call to hasClaim, for efficiency
  • The censusId and censusMessagingURI should have been fetched from the Process Metadata

# Casting a vote

A user wants to submit a vote for a given governance process.

Used schemas:


  • The Merkle Proof could be retrieved and stored beforehand

# After voting

# Overview

  • The voter checks that their vote is registered
    • The client asks a Gateway for the envelope status of his/her nullifier
  • The process ends
    • Either the organizer ends the process:
      • The organizer sends a transaction to the process contract and sets the state of the process as ended
      • An oracle relays the transaction to the Vochain
    • Or the process end block is reached:
      • An oracle sends a transaction to the Vochain to signal that a process has ended
    • Further envelope submissions are rejected
    • On encrypted processes:
      • Miners create a transaction revealing their private key for the process
  • The indexer computes the results, as well as any third-party observer who wishes to do so
    • The indexer fetches the Process Metadata from the process contract and IPFS
    • On encrypted processes:
      • The indexer requests the encryption private keys from the Gateway
    • The indexer fetches all the Vote Envelopes registered for the process
    • On encrypted processes:
    • The indexer checks their ZK Proofs or Merkle Proofs, the Vote Package contents and the restrictions imposed by the process flags
    • The indexer counts the number of appearances of every single vote value
      • Any vote value beyond the ones defined in the Process Metadata is discarded <!-- - The indexer and any third-party observers publish the vote results
    • The indexer computes a ZK Rollup, proving that the given results have been correctly computed from valid vote envelopes and that the results include the choices of N valid voter
    • The observer submits a transaction to the process smart contract, including the results and the ZK Rollup proof of the computation results -->

# Checking a Vote Envelope

A user wants to check the status of an envelope by its nullifier.

# Closing a Voting Process

# Vote Scrutiny

Anyone with network access can compute the scrutiny of a given processId.

Used schemas:

Last Updated: 7/29/2021, 7:15:37 PM