# # Ballot Protocol

The Vocdoni Ballot Protocol aims to be a very simple yet powerful specification for the representation of ballots and results for a voting process.

A * voting process* is made out of one or more

*, each of which represents a single question or an option for a question, depending on the*

**fields***. When voting, eligible voters choose from a set of predefined*

**type of process***for each field. The allowed number of answers, type of answer, etc. also depend on the specific type of process. An eligible voter expresses their choices by casting a*

**answers***.*

**ballot**A ballot is represented as an array (or list) of natural numbers. Each position of the array contains an answer to one of the process' fields.

Results are accumulated in a two-dimension array of natural numbers (a matrix). Each row of this matrix corresponds to a ballot field, and each column corresponds to one of the possible values for that field. Any number in the results matrix is simply a count of the votes for the value represented at that index.

*A more thorough introduction is available on our blog (opens new window).*

The protocol is composed by a set of numeric and boolean variables that restrict the format of the ballot. They are defined in the Process Parameters.

`uint8 maxCount`

Max number of fields per ballot. 1 <= maxCount <= 100.`uint8 maxValue`

Determines the acceptable maximum value for all fields.`uint8 minValue`

Determines the acceptable minimum value for all fields.`bool uniqueValues`

Choices for a question cannot appear twice or more`uint16 maxTotalCost`

Maximum limit on the total sum of all ballot fields' values (if applicable). 0 => No limit / Not applicable.`uint16 minTotalCost`

Minimum limit on the total sum of all ballot fields' values (if applicable). 0 => No limit / Not applicable.`uint16 costExponent`

The exponent that will be used to compute the "cost" of the field values.`totalCost = Σ (value[i] ^ costExponent) <= maxTotalCost`

`costExponent`

is represented as`exp * 10000`

so:- 0 => 0.0000
- 10000 => 1.0000
- 65535 => 6.5535

## # Results and example

The result is represented as a matrix of natural numbers. Let's take this JSON example:

```
[
[1,2,3], // in field 1: value 0 got 1 vote, value 1 got 2, value 2 got 3
[1,4,2], // in field 2: value 0 got 1 vote, value 1 got 4, value 2 got 2
[0,1,0] // in field 3: value 0 got 0 vote, value 1 got 1, value 2 got 0
]
```

Each row of the matrix represents a field, there are three fields:
`[ [First field], [Second field], [Third field] ]`

The ballot protocol does not cover interpretation. However, a very common interpretation would be to consider each field as the multiplier (weight) equal to its position.

- First question [1,2,3] =
`0*1 + 1*2 + 2*3`

=`0 + 2 + 6`

= 8 - Second question [0,4,2] =
`0*0 + 1*4 + 2*2`

= 8 - Third question [5,1,0] =
`0*5 + 1*1 + 2*0`

= 1

6 votes have been cast.

### # Example

Lets see an example with `maxCount=3`

and `maxValue=5`

The human-friendly question would be: *Rate these 3 candidates to the best rock music player of the 20th century, from 0 to 5 stars.*

- Lennon is the candidate 0, so question 0
- Hendrix is the candidate 1, so question 1
- Joplin is the candidate 2, so question 2

Let's start, currently there are no votes cast:

**Results:** Lennon:[0,0,0] Hendrix:[0,0,0] Joplin:[0,0,0]

New vote [2,1,2] =>

- give 2 points to candidate 0
- give 1 point to candidate 1
- give 2 points to candidate 2

**Results:** Lennon:[0,0,1] Hendrix:[0,1,0] Joplin:[0,0,1]

- candidate 0 = 2 points (1·2)
- candidate 1 = 1 point (1·1)
- candidate 2 = 2 points (1·2)

New vote [0,1,2] =>

- give 0 points to candidate 0
- give 1 point to candidate 1
- give 2 points to candidate 2

**Results:** Lennon:[1,0,1] Hendrix:[0,2,0] Joplin:[0,0,2]

- candidate 0 = 2 points
- candidate 1 = 2 point
- candidate 2 = 4 points

New vote [0,0,0] =>

- give 0 points to candidate 0
- give 0 points to candidate 1
- give 0 points to candidate 2

**Results:** Lennon:[2,0,1] Hendrix:[1,2,0] Joplin:[1,0,2]

- candidate 0 = 2 points
- candidate 1 = 2 point
- candidate 2 = 4 points

**Final Results:** `[ [2,0,1], [1,2,0], [1,0,2] ]`

- Lennon got
`2*0 + 1*0 + 2*1`

= 2 points - Hendrix got
`0*1 + 1*2 + 2*0`

= 2 points - Joplin got
`0*1 + 1*0 + 2*2`

= 4 points - Participation is 3 votes:
`[2+0+1] || [1+2+0] || [1+0+2]`

## # More Examples

### # Rate a product

Give a value from 0-5 to a product

- Vote Envelopes:
`[2]`

`[5]`

`[2]`

- Results: [ [0,0,2,0,0,1] ]

Two users have given 2 stars One user have given 5 stars

**Parameters**

maxCount | minValue | maxValue | minTotalCost | maxTotalCost | costExponent | uniqueValues |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 0 | 5 | - | - | - | No |

### # Rate 3 candidates

Lennon, Hendrix, Joplin ⇒ 0, 1, 2

- Vote Envelope:
`[2,1,2]`

`[0,1,2]`

`[0,0,0]`

- Results:
`[ [2,0,1], [1,2,0], [1,0,2] ]`

Lennon got `2*0 + 0*1 + 1*2`

= 2 points
Hendrix got `1*0 + 2*1 + 0*2`

= 2 points
Joplin got `1*0 + 0*1 + 2*2`

= 4 points

maxCount | minValue | maxValue | minTotalCost | maxTotalCost | costExponent | uniqueValues |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

3 | 0 | 2 | - | - | - | Yes |

### # Single choice

How do you feel today? Choose 1 out of 3 possible options: Bad, Good, Amazing

- Vote Envelopes:
`[0,1,0]`

`[0,1,0]`

`[0,0,1]`

- Results:
`[ [3,0,0], [1,2,0], [2,1,0] ]`

Bad: `0*3 + 1*0 + 2*0`

= 0
Good: `0*1 + 1*2 + 2*0`

= 2
Amazing: `0*2 + 1*1 + 2*0`

= 1

maxCount | minValue | maxValue | minTotalCost | maxTotalCost | costExponent | uniqueValues |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

3 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | - | No |

### # Multiple choice

Choose your 3 favorite colours out of 5: green:0, blue:1, pink:2, orange:3, black:4

- Vote Envelope:
`[1,1,1,0,0]`

`[0,1,1,1,0]`

`[1,1,1,0,0]`

- Results:
`[ [1, 2], [0, 3], [0, 3], [2, 1], [3, 0] ]`

green: `0*1 + 2*1`

= 2
blue: `0*0 + 1*3`

= 3
pink: `0*0 + 1*3`

= 3
orange: `0*2 + 1*1`

= 1
black: `0*3 + 0*1`

= 0

maxCount | minValue | maxValue | minTotalCost | maxTotalCost | costExponent | uniqueValues |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

5 | 0 | 1 | 3 | 3 | - | No |

### # Linear Weighted choice

Sort your 5 favorite blockchains: Bitcoin:0, Ethereum:1, Monero:2, Zcash:3, Polkadot:4.

Your first option gets 5 points,... the last 0 points.

- Vote Envelope:
`[0,3,1,4,2]`

`[3,0,1,4,2]`

`[1,2,3,4,0]`

- Results;
`[ [1,1,0,1,0], [1,0,1,1,0], [0,2,1,0,0], [0,0,0,0,3], [1,0,2,0,0] ]`

Bitcoin: `0*1 + 1*1 + 2*0 + 3*1 + 0*4`

= 4
Ethereum: `0*1 + 1*0 + 2*1 + 3*1 + 0*4`

= 5
Monero: `0*1 + 1*2 + 2*1 + 3*0 + 4*0`

= 6
Zcash: `0*0 + 1*0 + 2*0 + 3*0 + 4*3`

= 12
Polkadot: `0*1 + 1*0 + 2*2 + 3*0 + 4*0`

= 4

maxCount | minValue | maxValue | minTotalCost | maxTotalCost | costExponent | uniqueValues |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

5 | 0 | 4 | - | - | - | Yes |

### # Quadratic voting

You might distribute 12 credits among 4 NGOs. You can give as many tokens as you wish to a single option, but the cost raises exponentially with each additional token added to an option.

NGOs are: greenpeace:0, redcross:1, msf:2, amnesty:3

- Vote Envelopes:
`[2,2,2,0]`

`[1,1,2,2]`

`[0,3,1,1]`

```
Cost exponent calculations:
[2, 2, 2, 0]
envelope 1 calculation: 2^2 + 2^2 + 2^2 + 0^2
= 4 + 4 + 4 + 0 = 12 credits
[1, 1, 2, 2]
envelope 2 calculation: 1^2 + 1^2 + 2^2 + 2^2
= 1 + 1 + 4 + 4 = 10 credits
[0, 3, 1, 1]
envelope 3 calculation: 0^2 + 3^2 + 1^2 + 1^2
= 0 + 9 + 1 + 1 = 11 credits
```

- Results:
`[ [1,1,1,0], [0,1,1,1], [0,1,2,0], [1,1,1,0] ]`

greenpeace: `0*1 + 1*1 + 2*1 + 3*0`

= 3
redcross: `0*0 + 1*1 + 2*1 + 3*1`

= 6
msf: `0*0 + 1*1 + 2*2 + 3*0`

= 5
amnesty: `0*1 + 1*1 + 2*1 + 3*0`

= 3

maxCount | minValue | maxValue | minTotalCost | maxTotalCost | costExponent | uniqueValues |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

4 | 0 | - | 0 | 12 | 20000 | No |

### # Multiquestion

This mode requires a different way of interpreting the results, since each position of the results array is not multiplied by its index.

3 positions (CEO, COO, CFO), 5 candidates

- Ballots:
`[4,3,2]`

`[4,2,3]`

`[0,1,4]`

- Results:
`[ [1,0,0,0,2], [0,1,1,1,0], [0,0,1,1,1] ]`

CEO: candidate0:1 candidate4:2 COO: candidate1:1 candidate2:1 candidate3:1 CFO: candidate2:1 candidate3:1 candidate4:1

```
Vote Envelopes: [4,3,2] [4,2,3] [0,1,4]
CEO COO CFO
Option A results: [ [1, 0, 0, 0, 2], [0, 1, 1, 1, 0], [0, 0, 1, 1, 1] ]
Candidate 5 has won the CEO position, whereas COO is tied between candidates 2, 3, and 4, and CFO is tied between candidates 3, 4, and 5.
```

maxCount | minValue | maxValue | minTotalCost | maxTotalCost | costExponent | uniqueValues |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

3 | 0 | 4 | - | - | - | No |

## # Vocdoni results interpretation

Results interpretation is not part of the ballot protocol, but it informs how the protocol should be understood and displayed. The Process Metadata has a couple of flags describing the expected interpretation.

```
"results": {
"aggregation": "index-weighted", // "index-weighted" | "discrete-counting",
"display": "rating" // "rating" | "simple-question" | "multiple-choice" | "linear-weighted" | "quadratic-voting" | "multiple-question" | "raw"
}
```

The results provided by the scrutinizer contain a preliminary aggregation in a 2-dimensional matrix, where the final step needs to be completed by UI clients, depending on `results.aggregation`

.

### # Single question

Index-weighted: each option's value is multiplied by its position index, then summed.

```
[ [1,0,1], [2,0,0], [0,1,1] ] => [0*1+1*0+2*1], [0*2+1*0+2*0], [0*1+1*1+2*1] => [2,0,3]
option1: 2 votes
option2: 0 votes
option3: 3 votes
```

This interpretation suits any case with extended features, such as multiple choice, quadratic voting, linear-weighted, etc. This is because it is able to weigh multiple possible values for a single field.

### # Multi question

Discrete values: field values are just counted (weight = 1)

```
[ [1,2,0], [0,1,2], [1,1,1] ] => [ [question1], [question2], [question3] ]
field1: candidate0: 1 vote, candidate1: 2 votes, candidate 3: 0 votes
field2: candidate0: 0 votes, candidate1: 1 vote, candidate 2: 2 votes
field2: candidate0: 1 vote, candidate1: 1 vote, candidate 2: 1 vote
```

As this format can only accept binary (yes/no) input for each option, it is only available for use with a basic set of features (multi-question, single-choice)